©Margaret Holland


Scientific name: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
As the only crow with a red bill and red legs, the all-black chough is easy to identify. But it's harder to spot: there are only small, coastal populations in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the Isle of Man.

Species information


Length: 38-40cm
Wingspan: 82cm
Weight: 310g
Average lifespan: 7 years

Conservation status

Classified in the UK as Green under the Birds of Conservation Concern 4: the Red List for Birds (2015). Protected in the UK under the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

When to see

January to December


The chough lives on short, grazed grassland and coastal heathland where it probes the ground with its long, red bill for insects, such as leatherjackets and beetle larvae. Acrobatic in flight, it has a 'chee-ow' call which is similar to, but louder than, the Jackdaw's. Chough build nests in small colonies in crevices and fissures, on rock ledges and cliff faces, and even in abandoned buildings. They use roots, stems and heather, and line the nest with wool or hair. The female lays three to five eggs and both parents help to raise the chicks

How to identify

A small, glossy black crow, the chough is easily distinguished from the similar Jackdaw by its long, curved, red bill, red legs and entirely black plumage.


A rare bird of south-west Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. A tiny population has returned to the far west of Cornwall.

Did you know?

The chough is the symbol of Cornwall - it is on the Coat of Arms and, according to legend, King Arthur turned into a chough on his death. It was once so prevalent in the county that it was known as the 'Cornish chough'. Despite being extinct as a breeding bird in Cornwall for many years, a tiny population has recently returned to nest.

How people can help

The Wildlife Trusts work closely with farmers and landowners to ensure that our wildlife is protected and to promote wildlife-friendly practices. By working together, we can create Living Landscapes: networks of habitats stretching across town and country that allow wildlife to move about freely and people to enjoy the benefits of nature. Support this greener vision for the future by joining your local Wildlife Trust.